How can we improve the material performance of buildings, bring building materials into continuous closed cycles?
How do we make sure that biomass residual flows (from agriculture and the food industry) are used optimally as materials, chemicals, soil conditioners, and sources of energy?
How do we make sure that chemical processes consume fewer primary resources? To what extent can biomass serve as a 'green' raw material for chemistry? Can we close plastics cycles by focusing on customised product design, better separated collection of waste and a stronger market for recyclates?
How do we design products in such a way that metals can be recovered easily from them? Through what innovative business models and thoughtful logistics systems can products that contain metal effectively be collected at the end of their life cycles for high-quality recycling? How do we limit the illegal export of waste that contains metal?